Results of express-diagnostics evaluation of soil basing on penetration resistance measuring

Annals of Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW
Agriculture No 64 (Agricultural and Forest Engineering) 2014: 15-24
(Ann. Warsaw Univ. Life Sci. - SGGW, Agricult. 64, 2014)

Results of express-diagnostics evaluation of soil basing on penetration resistance measuring

EDVIN NUGIS1,2, LENAR LÜÜS1, JAAN KUHT3
1Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences
2Estonian Crop Research Institute, Department of Agrotechnology
3Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences

Abstract: The express-diagnostics method has the roots in medicine. It was needed for evaluation of influence of machines (negative or positive) on soil. At the same time the penetration resistance (PR) is one of attractive index for evaluation of soil physical properties. Under the same procedure we have observed the soil bulk density (by Litvinov's cylinders), moisture content (by soil moisture meter with soil moisture sensor Thetaprobe), penetration resistance (by Eijkelkamp penetrologger) and soil structure (by set of U.S.A. standard testing sieves). The field experiments at Haage Agro Ltd., near Tartu were carried out. Authors have found that in the spring of 2012 year the influence on soil by tractor and soil tillage machines depending of depth of soil layers was quite changeable. Also the same situation was in 2013 year. However, the diagram of penetration resistance that in deep of soil shows as typical three characteristics zones. If translate the character of diagram from Estonian to English language it can be so-called as pouches (or maximum amplitude): It is result of compaction of the shallow layer, II - compaction under the cultivation layer, III - cumulative compaction at subsoil layer which is result of long-term period influences of machines on soil. In results of laboratory simulation compaction test we have received the analogical diagram for penetration resistance. Including uniaxial compression device (patent application) the soil compactability in conditions of soil compression stress were as following: at bottom of cylinder 25, 100, 120 kPa. The results of soil compression stress showed that in cylinders the indices of soil structure is mostly worsen and at the same time it has been shown the same decreased level of soil bulk density (Mg.m-3) and penetration resistance (MPa). By corresponding index of excess of the optimum soil compression level, i.e. excess of the soil penetration or cone resistance is quite easy to provide an evaluation results and finally to assess the soil physical properties level, and thereby only on the assumption of soil moisture content 0.7-0.9 (70-90%) level of soil field capacity.

Key words: express-diagnostic evaluation, penetration resistance, field experiments, laboratory soil tests, index excess soil optimal level penetration resistance

Streszczenie: Wyniki badań metodą szybkiej oceny diagnostycznej gleby na podstawie pomiaru oporu penetracji. Przedstawiona metoda pozwala na ocenę wpływu oddziaływania maszyn rolniczych na glebę. Do oceny wybranych właściwości fizycznych gleby wykorzystano wskaźnik oporu penetracji gleby (PR). Za pomocą kilku metod zbadano gęstość gleby, zawartość wody w glebie, opór penetracji oraz strukturę gleby. Badania polowe przeprowadzono w pobliżu Tartu. Stwierdzono zmienny wpływ ciągnika i współpracujących z nim zespołów do uprawy gleby na ugniatanie poszczególnych warstw gleby w badaniach przeprowadzonych wiosną 2012 roku. Takie same wyniki badań i obserwacji uzyskano w 2013 roku. Rozpatrzono zjawiska związane z ugniataniem w trzech warstwach gleby, związanych z działaniem zespołów roboczych maszyn. Wskazano, że wykorzystanie wskaźnika optymalnej zwięzłości gleby, bazującego na badaniach stożka oporu penetracji, pozwala na relatywnie łatwą ocenę fizycznych właściwości badanej warstwy gleby o danym poziomie wilgotności.

Please use the following format to cite the selected article:
NUGIS E., LÛÛS L., KUHT J. Results of express-diagnostics evaluation of soil basing on penetration resistance measuring. Ann. Warsaw Univ. Life Sci. - SGGW, Agricult. 64, 2014: 15-24

Authors’ addresses:
Edvin Nugis
Institute of Technology
Estonian University of Life Sciences
Kreutzwaldi 56, Tartu 51014
Estonia
e-mail: edvin.nugis@emu.ee